What you must know about cosmetic surgery

Cosmetology is one of those medical spheres which develop relatively fast. A person’s wish to save their youth and good-looking appearance becomes stronger and stronger every year. But how to choose the right procedure and stay satisfied with the result? That question is tormenting a lot of women before visiting a certain specialist, and it often becomes a reason to postpone the visit and consulting. This issue is very significant, as it concerns human’s health, that is why one should take the matter seriously.



Everything becomes clearer with statistics. Let us consider the numbers for 2013, in the United States 15.1 million cosmetology procedures were held. That constitutes a 3-percent increase in comparison with 2012.

Before going to a surgeon, doctor or practitioner, it is highly recommended to learn the information and details about cosmetic or plastic surgery, because the effect will stay for a long period of time, if not forever. That is one of the main reasons why one should be confident about this decision.

There exist some reasons for a doctor to prescribe this or that patient to take up medical counseling, for example, in case of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) or other underlying issues.

There is also another type of such kind of surgeries which is called reconstructive surgeries. Its main purpose is to correct or restore damaged parts of the body. In this article we will only highlight some points which concern only cosmetic surgery.



Types and methods

According to the patient’s requirements, the world of plastic surgery offers a whole row of cosmetic procedures.

Breast surgery

Breast surgery, or how it is scientifically called, mammoplasty represents a plastic surgery operation on lacteal gland which is aimed at changing its shape or size (enlargement or reduction).

As breasts shape and size can significantly affect a woman’s self-esteem, either positively or negatively, many women intend to improve their breasts look. With the help of mammoplasty a female can correct some innate or acquired defects or create new better looking breasts on personal considerations.

Specialists point out several types of breast surgeries. They include:

Breast augmentation (aimed at breasts size enlargement) is performed with the help of endoprosthetic implants. Their insertion is carried out in different ways. In some cases the 3 cm cuts are made in the armpit area, in other cases – under the lacteal glands. It is also possible to perform the operation making cuts along the nipple areole line. The surgeon’s choice where to make the cuts is determined by the implant type.

Modern implants represent firm silicone shell filled with liquid silicone or salt solution. As for the form there can be round or anatomic implants. Anatomic implants look more natural but they cost more. The implant shell can be smooth or rough.



Breast reduction is carried out by means of removing parts of adipose and glandular tissues using liposuction method. The breast liposuction does not leave any postoperative suture, but it can be used only for a slight breast reduction. Though the reduction mammoplasty is an easier operation, the patient needs a full rehabilitation period after it, as well as complying with all doctor’s recommendations. Breast reduction is used to relieve a patient from physical inconveniences due to the heavy and discomforting breasts weight.



Breast lift, or mastopexy, is performed in case of breasts sagging. It is also carried out by means of adipose and skin tissues removal. Very frequently breast lift goes together with breast implants insertion for achieving the best looking results.

The cuts are usually made in three following ways:

– along the nipple areole perimeter;

– anchor cut goes along the nipple areole perimeter and then vertically down along the bottom breast line;

– half-moon cut in the upper parts of the breasts.

After such an operation the breasts look lifted and well shaped. The strategy of mastopexy reminds breast reduction procedure in some way.



Male breast reduction is required in case of gynecomastia, mammary tissue development in men. Liposuction can be the treatment, or another kind of surgical intervention which leaves scar patterns described above.




A great number of people suppose that liposuction is a special way to lose weight instantly or an effortless way of fighting the extra weight. This opinion is misleading. Liposuction is a cosmetic surgical operation which is aimed at relieving a patient from fat in problematic zones. Females have such zones at lower abdomen, thighs, hips, back and arm backs. Males have fat traps in the abdomen and breast area. The equipment which is used for liposuction includes thin hollow tubes, standard mechanical or laser devices.

Usually liposuction is carried out under general anesthesia, however, during smaller operations epidural anesthesia with sedation can be used. After the patient falls into sleep, the surgeon handles the area with an antiseptic and starts the injections. Such an operation can last from half an hour to several hours, dependant on the fat volume to be sucked out. The next thing to do is performing surgical suture, after which the doctor puts on the compression garments on the patient.

As the operation is carried out under general anesthesia, patients are to stay at the hospital for 24 hours under doctor’s control. At this time there can occur pains, accompanied sometimes with temperature, which is considered to be normal. The first period after the surgery patients must stick to a certain healthy diet to recover as soon as possible.

Thus, if one thinks that he or she can forget about healthy diet, sports and daily regime, they are absolutely wrong. It is considered that the adipose tissue in the operated area will not form again. However, this is a misleading idea which can annul all the surgeon’s efforts and the expenses for the operation. Firstly, during liposuction procedure the surgeon does not remove the whole

amount of fat, but only its part. Ill-balanced diet and insufficient physical activity can lead to growth of fat tissue in other areas. Secondly, sport significantly improves the results reached by the operation. And thirdly, the scientific research shows that our body can synthesize new adipose cells.

Now, let us investigate what complications can occur after liposuction. The first complication caused might be anemia, as adipose tissue is removed with some amount of blood. Secondly, after the operation a patient might have hematomas. To prevent them, it is necessary to wear compression garment. To other complications cicatrices, changes in skin sensation, skin sagging, body asymmetry can be included. However, complications can occur relatively seldom, but they are possible.

Finally, it is necessary to note that liposuction doe not reduce the possibility of diabetes, high blood pressure or heart disease development.



Vulvovaginal surgery

Labioplasty, or labial reduction is a plastic surgery procedure which is aimed at change of the minor and major vulva change. Some women appeal to this kind of surgeries if they have some innate defects or have physical or psychological discomfort due to prolonged labia and think that their vaginal view is abnormal.


Body procedures

Abdominoplasty, or “tummy tuck” is an operation when surpluses of skin or subcutaneous fat are removed, and lifting of abdominal muscles is carried out. It is necessary to realize that it is a serious surgical procedure after which a rehabilitation period is required. That is why, when it is possible to tuck the abdomen with the help of healthy diet and sports, doctors do not recommend to recourse to such a radical method.

Other body contouring procedures

Buttock augmentation, or gluteoplasty, is an operation made for buttock enlargement by means of implant insertion. Sometimes, buttock augmentation is preceded by liposuction, and in this case the fat removed from some part of the body is used as a material for buttock enlargement. Silicone implants are also used for gluteoplasty.

A buttock lift, or lower body lift is aimed at butt shape improvement by removing the surpluses of skin from thighs or hips. This operation can go together with abdominoplasty for those who lost a significant amount of weight.


Facial cosmetic surgery

Blepharoplasty, or eyelid surgery, is a surgical operation which aims at removing the excess skin or adipose tissue from the eyelid or the area under eyes in order to improve the eye shape. With the help of blepharoplasty one can get rid of the fat hernias (these very bags under eyes) for a long period of time or even for good, lift eye edges, to make eyes look bigger or change their form. Aging can also be a reason for a patient’s wish to make blepharoplasty, namely hooding upper eyelids and bags on the lower lids.



Rhinoplasty is used when a patient wants to correct some innate or acquired deformations of his or her nose. With the help of rhinoplasty a person can solve some problems of nasal breathing,

correct some consequences of nose traumas, or to correct their nose shape due to some aesthetic reasons. At the current moment there are two major kinds of rhinoplasty: open and hidden.



Otoplasty is aimed at changing the ear size or form by making them “stick” closer to the head if they are protruding. It can be done for one or both ears.



Rhytidectomy can be a solution to such problems as skin sagging, wrinkles, excess fat tissue in the area of the chin and neck, or some issues connected with consequences of weight loss. More often face lifting is recommended to people aged 40 – 60 years old, as it is considered to be an anti-aging procedure. There are surgical and non-operational methods of rhytidectomy.



A brow lift allows to locate the brows in an upper position. It is a part of forehead surgery, as it has to do with relaxing the muscles which “fix” the brows and relocating the skin with brows to a new position. The procedure smoothens the forehead and makes the face expression more “open” and well-rested.


Cheek augmentation can help to make the cheekbones look more expressive. It can be done more prominent by means of implant insertion.


Chin augmentation can allow making the facial features look more harmonious by means of reshaping the chin. In some situations it can be done at once with rhinoplasty through implant insertion or through manipulations with the chin bone.



Another less invasive cosmetic procedures

Due to various reasons, many people try to use some less invasive methods of cosmetology, such as peelings, fillers, botox injections and laser procedures.

Choosing a specialist

It is a significant issue to make an appointment at a highly qualified specialist and what is not less important approved by a professional board like the American Board of Plastic Surgery.

Also, the clinic at which the surgeon works and makes operations is an important factor. One should definitely note how many years the clinic works and if the practices are successful there. The investigation should be thorough as the potential patient entrusts his health into doctor’s hands.



Here are some tips before going ahead with any plastic surgery:

· Make an appointment and pick an experienced surgeon and check their licences.

· After consulting with the surgeon, make up your own if you need to make an operation at all or at this very clinic and by this very surgeon.

· Receive all the information about the procedure and consider all the advantages and disadvantages in advance, be aware of any risks.

· Make the procedure with correct timing personally for you and your body.

· Never recourse to cosmetic surgery to impress anyone else.




After a surgery there can be some complications. Here are some of them, in case of which one should necessarily consult medical specialists:

· not typical pain

· visual disturbances

· white skin near an injection site · signs of stroke



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